Formation of Collective Memories through Group Conversations: Examining the Involvement of the "Post-Event Misinformation Effect"

Yasuhiro Ozuru

Abstract


The term "collective memories" refers to memories shared within a given group of people. It is hypothesized that one of the ways in which memory acquire "collectivity" is through "post-event misinformation effect" (Loftus, 1975) of group conversation. In an experiment testing this hypothesis, individuals from eight four-member groups read stories containing conflicting information. Following a group recounting on the next day, they performed individual free-recall and forced-choice recognition consisting of the four alternatives appearing in the four different versions of the stories (e.g., Camel, Marlboro, Winston, and Parliament). Subjects were more likely to falsely recognize as well as recall other members' version when it was mentioned in the group recounting. The individuals who undertook the majority of the recounting, who were defined as Narrators, were more likely to insert their own versions into other member's subsequent recall and recognition. This advantage allowed the Narrator to shape the post-group individual memories.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aquilina, P. J. (1993). An Excerpt from Timely Topics: An Advanced Reading, Grammar, & Vocabulary Book (pp. 209-210). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle publishers.

Bangerter, A. (2000). Identifying individual and collective acts of remembering in task related communication. Discourse Processes.

Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. London: Cambridge University Press.

Bransford, J.D., & Johnson, M.K. (1973). Considerations of some problems of comprehension. In W. Case (Ed.), Visual Information Processing (pp. 383-438). New York: Guilford Press.

Butnaru, I.C. (1992). The Silent Holocaust: Romania and Its Jews. New York: Greenwood Press.

Craik, F.I.M. (1983). On the transfer of information from temporary to permanent memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 302, 341-359.

Dritschel, B.H. (1991). Autobiographical memory in natural discourse: A methodological note. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5, 319-390.

Echterhoff, G., & Hirst, W. (1998). Communicative assumptions and the malleability of memory: reducing the effects of misleading post event information by retrospective source invalidation, Paper presented at the Psychonomics Society Meeting, 1999.

Fivush, R., & Fromhoff, F. (1988). Style and structure in motherchild conversations about the past. Discourse Processes, 11, 337-355.

Green, E., Flynn, M. S., & Loftus, E. F. (1982). Inducing resistance to misleading information. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21, 207-219.

Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and Conversation. In P. Cole and J. L. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and Semantics, 3, Speech Acts, (pp. 41-58). New York, NY: Seminar Press.

Hastorf, A. H. & Cantril, H. (1954). They saw a game: A case study. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, 129-134

Higgins, E.T., & Stangor, C. (1988). Context driven social judgment and memory: When "behavior engulfs the field" in reconstructive memory. In D. Bar-Tal & A.W. Kruglanski (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Knowledge (pp.262-298). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hyman, I. E. Jr., & Billings, F. J. (1998). Individual differences and creation of false childhood memories. Memory, 6, 1-20.

Ioanoid, R. (2000). The Holocaust in Romania: The Destruction of Jews and Gypsies under the Antonescu Regime, 1940- 1944. Chicago: Ivan R Dee

Johnson, M. K., Hashitroudi, S., & Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source Monitoring. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 3-28.

Kantrowitz, B., Cohen, A., & Dissly, M (1993). The custody case that went up in smoke.An excerpt from Newsweek Magazine. In P. J. Aqualina (Ed.), Timely Topics: An Advanced Reading, Grammar, & Vocabulary Book (pp. 92). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

Kashy, D.A., & Kenny, D. (2000). The analysis of data from dyads and groups. In H.T. Reis. & C.M. Judd. (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Korriat, A., & Goldsmith, M. (1996). Monitoring and control processes in the strategic regulation of memory accuracy. Psychological Review, Vol.103, 3, 490-517

Lifton, R. J. (1967). Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima. New York: Random House.

Linton, M. (1986). Ways of searching and the contents of memory. In D. C. Rubin (Ed.), Autobiographical Memory (pp. 50-67). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Loftus, E. F. (1975). Leading questions and the eyewitness report. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 560-72.

Loftus, E. F. (1979). Eyewitness Testimony. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Loftus, E. F., & Hoffman, H. G. (1989). Misinformation and memory: The creation of new memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 100-104.

Loftus, E. F., Miller, D. G., & Burns, H. J. (1978). Semantic integration of verbal information into visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 19-31.

Loftus, E.F., & Mazzoni, G.A.L. (1998) Using imagination and personalized suggestion to change people. Behavior Therapy, 29, 691-706.

Manier, D., Cuc, A., & Hirst, W. (2001). The transformation of collective memories: A case study of family recounting. Submitted.

Mitchel, K. J. & Johnson, M. K. (2000). Source monitoring: attributing mental experiences. In E. Tulving, & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory (pp.179-195). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Nelson, K. (1993). The psychological and social origins of autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 4, 1-8.

Nelson, K. and Fivush, R. (2000). Socialization of memory. Distortions of memory. In E. Tulving, & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory (pp.149-162). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Shneider, D. M., & Watkins, M. J. (1996). Response conformity in recognition testing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 481-485.

Temple, O & Temple, R (1998). The Complete Fables of AESOP (pp210). New York: Penguin Books.

Tulving, E., & Pearlstone, Z. (1966). Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 5, 381-391.

Toner, H. L., & Gates, G. R. (1985). Emotional traits and recognition of facial expression of emotion. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 9, 48-66.

Underwood, B. J., & Pezdek, K. (1998). Memory suggestibility as an example of the sleeper effect. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 5, 449-453.

Vivante, A (1995). Can- Can. In S. Marcus (Ed.) A World of Fiction: Twenty Timeless Short Stories. (pp. 4-5). Addison-Wesley Publishing.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 The New School Psychology Bulletin

© The New School Psychology Bulletin | editors@nspb.net