Personal Initiative and Attachment Styles

Kristina Krause


So far personal initiative has mostly been studied in an organizational context, preferably the work place. But when do people develop initiative and which developmental factors play a role in the development of high levels of personal initiative? The objective of this paper is to investigate if there is a relation between attachment styles and the degree of personal initiative exhibited in the workplace, in other words, does attachment style have any predictive value with regard to initiative behaviors in the workplace?

Full Text:



Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E. & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment.: A psychological study of the strange situation. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Ainsworth, M. D. S. & Bell, S. M. (1970). Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of oneyear- olds in a strange situation. Child Development, 41, 49-67.

Bateman, T. S. & Crant, J. M. (1993). The pro-active component of organizational behavior: Ameasure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 14, 103-118.

Belsky, J., Garduque, I., & Hrncir, E., (1984). Assessing performance, competence, and executive capacity in infant play: Relations to home environment and security of attachment. Developmental Psychology, 20, 406-417.

Bott, P., Brüggemann, W., Hall, A. (2000). Wohin geht die Reise? Qualifikationsanforderungen im Wandel. In BWP 6, p.45-47.

Bowlby, J. (1950). Maternal care and mental health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base. New York: Basic Books.

Bryk, A. S., & Raudebush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multi-trait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P.E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302.

Fay, D. & Frese, M. (2000). The Concept of Personal Initiative: An Overview of Validity Studies. Human Performance, 14, 97-124.

Fay. D., & Sonnentag, S. (2000). Stressors and Personal Initiative: A Longitudinal Study on Organizational Behavior. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Frese, M. & Fay, D. (2001). Personal initiative (PI): Aconcept for work in the 21st century. Research in Organizational Behavior, 23, 133-187,

Frese, M., Fay, D., Hilburger, T., Leng, K. & Tag, A. (1997). The concept of personal initiative: Operationalization, reliability and validity in two German samples. Journal of Organizational and Occupational Psychology, 70, 139-161.

Frese, M., & Hilligloh, S. (1994). Eigeninitiative am Arbeitsplatz im Osten und Westen Deutschlands: Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung [Personal initiative at work in East and West Germany: Results of an empirical study]. In: G. Trommsdorf (Hrsg.), Psychologische Aspekte des Sozialpolitischen Wandels in Ostdeutschland. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Frese, M., Garst, H.; & Fay, D. (2000). Control and complexity in work and the development of personal initiative (PI): a four-wave longitudinal structural equation model of occupational socialization. University of Giessen: submitted for publication.

Frese, M. & Krause, K.G. (2002) Personal initiative in the workplace: a behavior-oriented questionnaire. Diplomarbeit at the department of industrial and organizational psychology at Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen Germany

Frese, M., Kring, W., Soose, A. & Zempel, J. (1996). Personal initiative at work: Differences between East and West Germany. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 37-63.

Frese, M. & Zapf, D. (1994). Action as the core of work psychology: A German approach. In: H. C. Triandis. M.D. Dunnette & L. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 271-340). Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Gnahs, D. (2001). Weiterbildungsqualitaet- auf dem Weg zu mehr Verbindlichkeit?: in BWP. 30, 2001, 3.

Griffin, D.W. & Bartholomew, K. (1994). The meta-physics of measurement: The case of adult attachment. In Advances in Personal Relationships, 5, 17-52.

Grossman, K.E., Scheurer-Englisch, H., & Loher, I. (1991). Die entwicklung emotionlaer Organisation und ihre Beziehung zu intelligentem Handeln [The development of emotional organization and its relationship to intelligent behavior]. In F.J. Moenks & G. Lehwald (Eds.), Neugier, Erkundung und Begabung bei Kleinkindern [Curiosity, exploration, and talent in young children] (pp. 66-76). Muenchen: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag.

Hacker (1998). Allgemeine Arbeitspsychologie. Bern: Huber.

Hazan, C. & Shaver, P.R. (1994). Attachment as an organizational framework for research on close relationships. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 1-22.

James, L., James, L., & Ashe, D. (1990). The meaning of organizations : the role of cognition and values. In B. Schneider (Ed.), Organizational climate and culture: 40-84. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Koop, S., De Reu, T., & Frese M. (2000). Sociodemographic factors, entrepreneurial orientation, personal initiative, and environmental problems in Uganda. In M. Frese (Ed.), Success and failure of microbusiness owners in Africa: A psychological approach (pp.55-76). Westport, CT: Quorum.

Kozlowski, S.W.J., & Hattrup, K. (1992). A disagreement about within-group agreement: Disentangling issues of consistency versus consensus, Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 161-167.

Morrison, E.W. & Phelps, C.C.(1999). Taking Charge at work: extra role efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 403-419.

Motowidlo, S.J., & Scotter, J.R.V. (1994). Evidence that task performance should be distinguished from contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 569-573.

Rotter, J.B. (1966). 'Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement', Psychological Monographs, 80 (1, Whole No. 609).

Scott, S.G. & Bruce, R.A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: a path model of individual innovation in the work place. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 580-607.

Shrout, P.E., & Fleiss, J.L. (1979). Intraclass Correlations: Uses in Assessing Rater Reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 420-428.

Van Dyne, L., Cummings, L.L., & McLean Parks, J. (1995). Extra-role behaviors: In pursuit of construct and definitional clarity. In: LL.Cummings & B.M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, 17, 215-285. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Yaffee, R.A. (1998). Enhancement of Reliability Analysis: Application of Intraclass Correlations with SPSS/Windows v.8. Statistics and Social Science Group, Academic Computing Facility, New York University.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 The New School Psychology Bulletin

© The New School Psychology Bulletin |