Development and Psychometric Testing of the Perceptions of Terrorism Questionnaire Short-Form (PTQ-SF)
The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon have had an ongoing impact, transforming daily habits and attitudes in the United States. At the time of the attacks, social scientists had limited understanding of how people in the United States would think about or react to large-scale acts of terrorism in the US. This study contributes to a growing body of knowledge and theory in this area. We developed and psychometrically evaluated the 25-item Perceptions of Terrorism Questionnaire short-form (PTQ-SF), assessing eight constructs identified by the authors as recurrent themes in the general literature on terrorism (literature that is not specific to the US), including Perceived Threat of Terrorism, Faith in Government, and Fear/Impact of Terrorism. Psychometric evaluation of the PTQ demonstrated that it met acceptable standards for item internal consistency/convergent validity, item discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, and floor/ceiling effects. Confirmatory factor analysis generally supported item groupings. Results support the PTQ-SF as a promising new measure of perceptions of terrorism.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-TR: Fourth edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Associated Press. (2004). More Americans Fear Terrorists are Winning. Retrieved April 2004 from www.msnbc.com.
Beck, A.T. (2002). Prisoners of hate. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 209-216.
Bleich, A., Gelkopf, M., & Solomon, Z. (2003). Exposure to terrorism, stress-related mental health symptoms, and coping behaviors among a nationally representative sample in Israel. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 667-670.
Bonnano, G.A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience. American Psychologist, 59, 20-28.
Campbell, D.T., & Fiske, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.
Chanley, V.A. (2002). Trust in the government in the aftermath of 9/11: Determinants and consequences. Political Psychology, 23, 469-483.
Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.
Fremont, W.P. (2004). Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 381-392.
Galea, S., Resnick, H., Ahern, J., Gold, J., Bucuvalas, M., Kilpatrick, D., et al. (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder in Manhattan, New York City, after the September 11th terrorist attacks. Journal of Urban Health, 79, 340-353.
Galea, S., Vlahov, D., Resnick, H., Ahern., Susser, E., Gold, J., et al. (2003). Trends of probable posttraumatic stress disorder in New York City after the September 11 terrorist attacks. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158, 514-524.
Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Solomon, S. (1986). The causes and consequences of a need for self esteem: A terror management theory. In R.F. Baumeister (Ed.), Public self and private self. (pp. 189-212). New York: Springer Verlag.
Harman, H.H. (1976). Modern Factor Analysis, 3rd Edition Revised. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hart, G. & Rudman, B. (2002). America still unprepared - America still in danger. Retrieved November 8, 2002 from http://www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=5099.
Howard, K.I., & Forehand, G.G. (1962). A method for correcting item-total correlations for the effect of relevant item inclusion. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 22, 731-735.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
Huddy, L., Feldman, S., Capelos, T., & Provost, C. (2002). The consequences of terrorism: Disentangling the effects of personal and national threat. Political Psychology, 23, 485-509.
Kramer, M.E., Brown, A., Spielman, L., Giosan, C., Rothrock, M. (2004). Psychological reactions to the national terror alert system. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association's 2004 annual conference.
Lerner, J.S., & Dacher, K. (2001). Fear, anger, and risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 146-159.
Lerner, J.S., Gonzalez, R.M., Small, D.A., & Fischhoff, B. (2003). Effects of fear and anger on perceived risks of terrorism: A national field experiment. Psychological Science, 14, 144-150.
Lipton, R., Ghannam, J.H., & Beinin, J. (2003). Definitions of terrorism. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 2254.
McCauley, C. (2002). Psychological issues in understanding terrorism and the response to terrorism. In C. Stout (Ed.), The psychology of terrorism: Theoretical understandings and perspectives, Vol. III. Psychological dimensions to war and peace. (pp. 3-29). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
McHorney, C.A., Ware, J.E., & Raczek, A.E. (1993). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36):II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Medical Care, 31, 247-263.
Morin, R. (2003). Most in area are edgy, getting ready. Retrieved December 31, 2002 from www.washingtonpost.com.
Murphy, R.T., Wismar, K., & Freeman, K. (2003). Stress symptoms among African-American college students after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 108-114.
Muthen, B.O., & Muthen, L. (1998). Mplus User's Guide. Los Angeles: Muthen & Muthen.
Nunnally, J.C., & Bernstein, I.H. (1994). Psychometric theory, (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Piotrkowski, C.S., & Brannen, S.J. (2002). Exposure, threat appraisal, and lost confidence as predictors of PTSD symptoms following September 11, 2001. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 476-485.
Polling Report. (2005). War on Terrorism Polling Reports. Retrieved July 12, 2005 from www.pollingreport.com/terror.
Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., & Greenberg, J. (2003). In the wake of 9/11: The psychology of terror. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Schuster, M.A., Stein, B.D., Jaycox, L.H., Collins, R.L., Marshall, G.N., Elliott, M.N., et al. (2001). A national survey of stress reactions after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 1507-1512.
Silver, R.C., Holman, E.A., McIntosh, D.N., Poulin, M., & Gil- Rivas, V. (2002). Nationwide longitudinal study of psychological responses to September 11. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1235-1244.
Sinclair, S.J. (2004). Social functioning, health status, and the impact of terrorism. Master's thesis presented to the faculty of Suffolk University. Boston, MA: Suffolk University.
Sinclair, S.J., & LoCicero, A. (2004). The perceptions of terrorism questionnaire. Boston, MA: Suffolk University.
Stern, J. The protean enemy. Retrieved July 17, 2003 from www.foreignaffairs.org/20030701Faessay15403/jes…/the-protean-enemy.html
Tenet, G. (2004). The worldwide threat 2004: Challenges in a changing global context. Retrieved March 10, 2004 from http://www.cia.gov.
United States Department of Homeland Security. (2006). Nationwide Plan Review Phase 2, Retrieved June 16, 2006, Found at http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/interapp/press_release/press_release_0930.xml
Ware, J.E., Harris, W.J., Gandek, B.L., Rogers, B.W., & Reese, P.R. (1997). MAP-R Multitrait/Multi-item analysis program - revised. Boston, MA: The Health Assessment Lab.
Widemeyer Research & Polling. (2003). Public perspectives on the mental health effects of terrorism: A national poll. Retrieved April 2004 from www.widemeyer.com.
Zimbardo, P. (2003a). Overcoming terror. Retrieved February 2004 from http://www.psychologytoday.com/htdocs/prod/ptoarticle/pto-20030724000000.asp.
Zimbardo, P. (2003b). The political psychology of terrorist alarms. Retrieved February 2004 from http://www.zimbardo.com/downloads/2002%20Political%20Psychology%20of%20Terrorist%20Alarms.pdf.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2017 The New School Psychology Bulletin
© The New School Psychology Bulletin | firstname.lastname@example.org