The Interplay Between Depression, Anxiety, Interpersonal Problems, Self-Weighing and Overall Eating Styles of University Students

Peta Stapleton, Sheree Empson

Abstract


The world is facing an epidemic of obesity. As a result, it is vital that the contributing factors of this issue are identified and addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between overall eating style scores in college age students with depression, anxiety, interpersonal problems and self-weighing. The present study consisted of 170 participants (73% female). The results indicated that when social desirability, gender and race were controlled for, depression, interpersonal problems, and self-weighing significantly negatively contributed to overall eating style scores. When self-weighing and interpersonal problems were accounted for, anxiety was found to not significantly predict overall eating styles. Depression, anxiety, interpersonal problems and self-weighing accounted for 20% of overall eating style scores. When all other values had been accounted for, depression was the most reliable predictor and accounted for an additional 6% of the variance. Together these findings suggest that depression, anxiety, interpersonal problems and self-weighing play a role in the development of unhealthy eating habits and by extension, obesity.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Alberts, H. J. E. M., Thewissen, R., & Raes, L. (2012). Dealing with problematic eating behaviour: The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern. Appetite, 58, 847-851. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.01.009

Ambwani, S., & Hopwood, C. J. (2009). The utility of considering interpersonal problems in the assessment of bulimic features. Eating Behaviors, 10, 247-253. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2009.07.007

Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the depression anxiety stress scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 176-181.

Arnow, B., Kenardy, J., & Agras, W. S. (1995). The emotional eating scale. The development of a measure to assess coping with a negative affect by eating. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18(1), 79–90.

Bellisle, F., Louis-Sylvestre, J., Linet, N., Rocaboy, B., Dalle, B., Cheneau, F., ... Guvot, L. (1990). Anxiety and food intake in men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52(4), 452–457.

Boutelle, K., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., & Resnick, M. (2002). Weight control behaviors among obese, overweight, and non-overweight adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 531-540. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/27.6.531

Braet, C., & Van Strien, T. (1997). Assessment of emotional externally induced and restrained eating behaviour in nine to twelve-year-old obese and non-obese children. Behaviour Research, 35(9), 863–873.

Bray, G. A., & DeLany, J. (2012). Opinions of obesity experts on the causes and treatment of obesity–A new survey. Obesity Research, 3(S4), 419S-423S.

Butryn, M. L., Phelan, S., Hill, J. O., & Wing, R. R. (2007). Consistent self-monitoring of weight: A key component of successful weight loss maintenance. Obesity, 15, 3091-3096. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.368

Connan, F., Troop, N., Landau, S., Campbell, L. C.,& Treasure, J. (2007). Poor social comparison and the tendency to submissive behavior in anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40, 733–739. doi: 10.1002/eat.20427

Conner, M., Fitter, M., & Fletcher, W. (1999). Stress and snacking: A diary study of daily hassles and between-meal snacking. Psychology and Health, 14, 51–63. doi:10.1080/08870449908407313

Dallman, M. F., Pecoraro, N., Akana, S. F., La Fleur, S. E., Gomez, F., Houshyar, H., ... Manalo, S. (2003). Chronic stress and obesity: A new view of “comfort food.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 11696–11701. doi:10.1073/pnas.1934666100

Deshpande, S., Basil, M. D., & Basil, B. (2009). Factors influencing healthy eating habits among college students: an application of health belief model. Health Marketing Quarterly, 26, 145-164. doi:10.1080/07359680802619834

Evans, L., & Wertheim, E. H. (2005). Attachment styles in adult intimate relationships: Comparing women with bulimia nervosa symptoms, women with depression and women with no clinical symptoms. European Eating Disorders Review, 13, 285−293. doi:10.1002/erv.621

Foster, G. D., Wadden, T. A., Makris, A. P., Davidson, D., Sanderson, R. S., Allison, D. B., & Kessler, A. (2012). Primary care physicians’ attitudes about obesity and its treatment. Obesity Research, 11(10), 1168-1177.

Geliebter, A., & Aversa, A. (2003). Emotional eating in overweight, normal weight, and underweight individuals. Eating Behaviors, 3(4), 341-347.

Gorin, A. A., Phelan, S., Raynor, H., & Wing, R. R. (2011). Home food and exercise environments of normal-weight and overweight adults. American Journal of Health Behavior, 35, 618-626. doi:10.5993/AJHB.35.5.10

Govern, J. M., & Marsch, L. A. (2001). Development and validation of the situational self-awareness scale. Consciousness and Cognition, 10, 366-278. doi:10.1006/ccog.2001.0506

Greeno, C. G., & Wing, R. R. (1994). Stress-induced eating. Psychological Bulletin, 115,444-464. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.115.3.444

Emotional eating, depressive symptoms and self-Hartmann, A., Zeeck, A., & Barrett, M. S. (2010). Interpersonal problems in eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43, 619-627. doi:10.1002/eat.20747

Heatherton, T. F., & Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Binge eating as escape from self-awareness. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 86–108. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.110.1.86

Henry, J. D., & Crawford, J. R. (2005). The short-form version of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS-21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 227-239. doi:10.1348/014466505X29657

Herman, C. P., & Polivy, J. (1975). Anxiety, restraint, and eating behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 666-672. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.84.6.666.

Hill, J. O., Wyatt, H. R., Phelan, S., & Wing, R. R. (2005). The National Weight Control Registry: Is it useful in helping deal with our obesity epidemic? Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 37(4), 206-210.

Horowitz, L. M., Alden, L. E., Wiggins, J. S., & Pincus, A. L. (2000). Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Manual. Orlando, FL: The Psychological Corporation.

Huang, Y., Song, W. O., Schemmei, R. A., & Hoerr, S. M. (1994). What do college students eat? Food selection and meal pattern. Nutrition Research, 14, 1143-1153. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(05)80242-8

Jeffery, R. W., Linde, J. A., Simon, G. E., Ludman, E. J., Rohde, P., Ichikawa, L. E., & Finch, E. A. (2009). Reported food choices in older women in relation to body mass index and depressive symptoms. Appetite, 52, 238–240. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2008.08.008

Klem, M. L., Wing, R. R., McGuire, M. T., Seagle, H. M., & Hill, J. O. (1997). A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(2) 239-246.

Konttinen, H., Mannisto, S., Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, S., Silventoinen, K., & Haukkala, A. (2010). Emotional eating, depressive symptoms and self-reported food consumption. A population-based study. Appetite, 54, 473-479. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.01.014

Kuczmarski, M. F., Sees, A. C., Hotchkiss, L., Cotugna, N., Evans, M. K., & Zonderman, A. B. (2010). Higher healthy eating index-2005 scores associated with reduced symptoms of depression in an urban population: Findings from the healthy aging in neighborhoods of diversity across the lifespan (HANDLS) study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110, 383-389. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.11.025

Lee, S. H., & Calamaro, C. (2012). Nursing bias and the obese patient: The role of the clinical nurse leader in improving care of the obese patient. Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient Care, 7(3), 127-131.

Linde, J. A., Jeffery, R. W., French, S. A., Pronk, N. P., & Boyle, R. G. (2005). Self-weighing in weight gain prevention and weight loss trials. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 30(3), 210-216.

Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (2002). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Psychology Foundation Monograph: Sydney.

Lyon, H. N., & Hirschhorn, J. N. (2005). Genetics of common forms of obesity: A brief overview. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(1), 215S-217S.

Lytle, L. A., Vernell, S., Murray, D. M., Story, M., Perry, C., Birnbaum, A. S., & Kubik, M. Y. (2003). Predicting adolescents’ intake of fruits and vegetables. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 35, 170-178. doi:10.1016/S1499-4046(06)60331-X

Mcintosh, V. V., Bulik, C. M., Mckenzie, J. M., Luty, S.E., & Jordan, J. (2000). Interpersonal psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 27, 125-139. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(200003)

Mokdad, A. H., Serdula, M. K., Dietz, W. H., Bowman, B. A., Marks, J. S., Koplan, J. P.(1999). The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991-1998. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 1519-1522. doi:10.1001/jama.282.16.1519

National Institutes of Health (2008). Depression Technical Report Rep. 08 3561. Washington, DC,USA: National Institutes of Health.

Neumark-Sztainer, D., van den Berg, P., Hannan, P. J., Stat, M., & Story, M. (2006). Self weighing in adolescents: Helpful or harmful? Longitudinal associations with body changes and disordered eating. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39, 811-818. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.07.002

NHMRC, N. H. a. M. R. C. (2012). Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults, Children and Adolescents. Clinical Practice DRAFT. Canberra, Australia: Department of Health and Ageing.

Norton, P. J. (2007). Depression anxiety and stress scales (DASS-21): Psychometric analysis across four racial groups. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 20, 253-265. doi:10.1080/10615800701309279

Norwood, S.J., Rawana, J.S., & Brown, A. (2013). Eating disturbances and interpersonal relationships as predictors of depressive symptoms among emerging adults. The New School Psychology Bulletin, 10(1), 44-53.

Orbach, S. (1978). Fat is a feminist issue. New York: Paddington Press.

Ouwens, M. A., van Strien, T., & van Leeuwe, J. F. J. (2009). Possible pathways between depression, emotional and external eating: A structural equation model. Appetite, 53, 245–248. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2009.06.001

Patrick, J., Dyck, M., & Bramston, P. (2010). Depression anxiety stress scale: Is it valid for children and adolescents? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 996-1007. doi:10.1002/jclp.20696

Polivy, J., Ouwens, C. P., & McFarlane, T. (1994). Effects of anxiety on eating: does palatability moderate distress-induced overeating in dieters. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 510. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.103.3.505

Racette, S. B., Deusinger, S. S., Strube, M. J., Highstein, G. R., & Deusinger, R. H. (2005). Weight changes, exercise, and dietary patterns during freshman and sophomore years of college. Journal of American College Health, 53(6), 245–251.

Ray, J. (1984). The reliability of short social desirability scales. Journal of Social Psychology, 123, 133-134. doi:1080/00224545.1984.9924522

Ruderman, A. J. (1986). Dietary restraint: Atheoretical and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 247–262. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.99.2.247

Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, S., Lahelma, E., & Roos, E. (2004). Mental health and food habits among employed women and men. Appetite, 42, 151 156. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2003.08.014

Scherwitz, L., & Kesten, D. (2005). Seven eating styles linked to overeating, overweight and obesity. Explore, 1, 342-259. doi:10.1016/j.explore.2005.06.004

Sechrist, G. B., Stangor, C., Brownell, K., Puhl, R., Schwartz, M., & Rudd, L. (2005). Social consensus and the origins of stigma. Weight bias: Nature, consequences, and remedies. In K. D. Brownell, R. M. Puhl, M. B. Schwartz, & L. Rudd (Eds.), Weight bias: Nature, consequences, and remedies (pp. 97-108). New York: Guilford Press.

Shaw, M. E. (1998). Adolescent breakfast skipping: An Australian study. Adolescence, 33(132), 851-861.

Snoek, H. M., Van Strien, T., Janssens, J. M. A. M., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2007). Emotional, external, restrained eating and overweight in Dutch adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48, 23-32. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00568.x

Spitzer, R., L., Kroenke, K., & Williams, J., B. (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: The PHQ primary care study. Journal of American Medical Association, 282, 1737–1744.

Steiger, H., & Houle, L. (1991). Defense styles and object-relations disturbances among University women displaying varying degrees of ‘‘symptomatic’’ eating. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10, 145-153. doi:10.1002/1098.108X(199103)10:2<145::AID-EAT2260100203>3.0.CO;2-D

Stice, E. (1998). Relations of restraint and negative affect to bulimic pathology. A longitudinal test of three competing models. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 23, 243–260. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199804)23:3<243::AID-EAT2>3.0.CO;2-J

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. United States of America: Pearson.

Tanskanen, A., Hibbeln, J. R., Tuomilehto, J., Uutela, A., Haukkala, A., Viinamaki, H., Vartiainen, M. D. . . (2001). Fish consumption and depressive symptoms in the general population in Finland. Psychiatric Services, 52, 529–531. doi:10.1176/app.ps.52.4.529

Teachman, B. A., Mallett, R. K., Brownell, K., Puhl, R., Schwartz, M., & Rudd, L. (2005). Measurement of bias. In K. D. Brownell, R. M. Puhl, M. B. Schwartz, & L. Rudd (Eds.), Weight bias: Nature, consequences, and remedies (121-133). New York: Guilford Press.

United Nations Human Rights Council. (2011). Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier de Schutter. doi: http://www.srfood.org/images/stories/pdf/officialreports/20120306_nutrition_en.pdf

Van Strien, T., Frijters, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 747–755. doi:10.1002/1098-108X(198602)5:2<295::AID-EAT2260050209>3.0.CO;2-T

Veltsista, A., Laitinen, J., Sovio, U., Roma, E., Jarvelin, M, & Bakoula, C. (2010). Relationship between eating behavior, breakfast consumption, and obesity among Finnish and Greek adolescents. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 42, 417-421. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2009.12.004

Videon, T. M., & Manning, C. K. (2003). Influences on adolescent eating patterns: The importance of family meals. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32, 365-373.

Wallston, K., A., & Wallston, B. S. (1978). Development of the multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) scales. Health Education Monographs, 6, 160-170.

Wester, K. L., Willse, J. T., & Davis, M. S. (2008). Responsible conduct of research measure: Initial development and pilot study. Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance, 15, 87-104 doi:10.1080/08989620801946891

Wilding, J. (2012). Are the causes of obesity primarily environmental? Yes. BMJ, 345:e5843. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e5843

Withrow, D., & Alter, D. (2010). The economic burden of obesity worldwide: A systematic review of the direct costs of obesity. Obesity Reviews, 12(2), 131-141. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00711-5

Yannakoulia, M., Panagiotakos, D. B., Pitsavos, C., Tsetsekou, E., Fappa, E., Papageorgiou, C., & Stefanadis, C. (2008). Eating habits in relations to anxiety symptoms among apparently healthy adults. A pattern analysis from the ATTICA study. Appetite, 51, 519-525. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2008.04.002


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 The New School Psychology Bulletin

© The New School Psychology Bulletin | editors@nspb.net