Forgetful 
“Sites
 of 
Memory”:
 Immigration
 Museums 
and 
the
 Uses 
of 
Public 
Memory


Tamar Blickstein

Abstract


Despite
 strong
 conceptual
 frameworks
 for
 national
 museums
 as
 potential
 “sites
 of
 memory,”
 practical
 attempts
 to
 establish
 such
 sites
 can
 prove
 paradoxically
 forgetful.
 
 The
 following
 paper
 considers
 this
 apparent
 paradox
 by
 contrasting
 the
 highly
 idealized
 theoretical
 motives
 for
 a
 national
 museum
 of
 immigration
 in
 France
 with
 the
 concrete
 realization
 of
 such
 a
 museum
 in
 Argentina.
 
 Grounded
 in
 a
 problematic 
opposition 
between 
New
 World 
memory 
and 
Old 
World 
amnesia 
of
immigration ,
the 
French
 museum
 was
 conceived
 as
 a
 form
 of
 national
 “memory‐work”
 that
 need
 not
 contend
 with
 the
 colonial
 past.
 
 This
 paper
 challenges
 that
 binary
 opposition
 through
 the
 example
 of
 Argentina,
 whose
 national
 museum
 of
 immigration
 enshrines
 a
 hegemonic
 memory
 of
 white
 European
 immigration
 that
 omits
 the
 history 
and 
present 
of 
an 
increasingly
 mestizo 
immigrant 
population. 

Both 
nations’
attempts
to
restitute
 public
 memory
 of
 immigration
 through
 inclusive
 “sites
 of
 memory”
 have,
 I
 argue,
 inadvertently
 highlighted
 their
 own
 national
 blindspots.
 The
 cases
 presented
 here
 point
 to
 the
 persistence
 of
 forgetfulness
 as
 a
 political
 feature
 of
 national
 memory,
 and
 to
 the
 often
 unintentional
 political
 uses
 of
 public
memory
sites.


 


Full Text:

PDF

References


ACTAS (1997). Migraciones laborales contem­ poráneas y su rol en el desarrollo local y regional en América latina y Europa. ACTAS Latino Americanas de Varsovia, 49 Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Quito, July 7‐11, 1997. Coordinators: Maria Skoczek y Guadalupe Vargas Montero.

ADRI (2004). Musée et histoire de l’immigration, un enjeu pour toutes les nations. Colloque international. Sommaire. [Abridged proceedings of conference. Bibliotheque nationale de France. Paris, December 9‐10, 2004]. Retrieved from: http://www.histoireimm‐ igration.fr/upload/file/ext_media_fichier_1 9_dossier_colloque_OK.pdf

Andrews, G. R. (1980). The Afro­-Argentines of Buenos Aires, 1800­1900. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Appadurai, A. (1996). Global ethnoscapes. Notes and queries for a transnational anthropology. In Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 48‐65.

Assmann, J. and J. Czaplicka (1995). Collective Memory and Cultural Identity. New German Critique, No. 65, pp. 125‐133.

Beheran, M. (2008). Identificaciones étnico-nacionales de jóvenes inmigrantes en una escuela publica de nivel medio de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Congreso Argentino de Antropología Social [Argentine Social Anthropology Conference]. Misiones, Argentina, August 7, 2008.

Blanc‐Chaléard, M‐C. (2005). Du ‘Non‐lieux de mémoire’ à la ‘CNHI’. Diasporas: Histoire et Société 6. pp.12‐22.

Bloch, M. (1925). Mémoire collective, tradition et coutume: A propos d'un livre récent', Revue de synthèse historique XL. Nouvelle série xiv, pp. 73‐83.

Berliner, D. (2005). The Abuses of Memory: Reflections on the Memory Boom in Anthropology. Anthropological Quarterly, 78, pp. 197‐211.

Bodnar, J. (1992). Remaking America: Public Memory, Commemoration, and Patriotism in the Twentieth Century, Princeton University Press.

Bourdieu, P., (1996). The State Nobility. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Briones, C., & Delrio, W. (2002). Patria sí, colonias también. Estrategias diferenciadas de radicación de indígenas en Pampa y Patagonia (1885‐1900). In Teruel, A., Lacarrieu, M. & Jerez, O. (Eds.) Fronteras, Ciudades y Estados. Córdoba: Alción Editora, pp. 45‐78.

Connerton, P. (1989). How Societies Remember. Cambridge University Press.

Constitución de la Nación Argentina. Publicación ordenada por el Congreso de la Nación (2007, [1853]). Buenos Aires: Ediciones del País.

Derrida, J. (1994). Specters of Marx. The state of the debt, the work of mourning, and the new international. Trans. Kamuf, P., New York: Routledge.

Foucault, M. (1976). Histoire de la Sexualité I. La Volonté de savoir. Paris: Gallimard.

Freud, S. (1997). The ‘Uncanny.’ In Writings on Art and Literature, ed. Neil Hertz. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Grimson, A. (1999). Relatos de la diferencia y la igualdad. Los bolivianos en Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires: Eudeba.

Guano, E. (2004). The Denial of Citizenship: 'Barbaric' Buenos Aires and the Middle‐ Class Imaginary. City & Society 16. (1). pp. 69‐97.

Halbwachs, M. (1992). On Collective Memory. Trans. Lewis A. Coser. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Helg, A. (1990). Race in Argentina and Cuba, 1880‐1930: Theory, Policies, and Popular Reaction. In Graham, R., dir. The Idea of Race in Latin America. Austen: University of Texas Press.

Huyssen, A. (1995). Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia. New York: Routledge.

Huyssen, A. (2003). Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

INDEC. (2004). Población limítrofe por año de llegada a Argentina. 2002­2003. Retrieved from: http://www.indec.mecon.ar/default.htm

Jachimowicz, M. (2006). Argentina: A new era of migration and migration policy. Migration Information Source. Washington D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.migrationinformation.org/Prof iles/display.cfm?ID=374

Jameson, F. (1986). Third‐world literature in the era of multinational capitalism. Social Text.15. pp. 65‐88.

Jarrassé, D. (2007). The Former Palace of the Colonies: the burden of heritage. Museum International, 59 (1‐2). pp. 56–65.

Kansteiner W. (2002). Finding meaning in memory: A methodological critique of collective memory studies. History and Theory, V 41, No. 2, pp. 179‐197.

Kroeber, A.L. (1920). Totem and taboo: an ethnologic psychoanalysis. American Anthropologist, XXII, pp. 48‐55.

Kroeber, A.L. (1939). Totem and taboo in retrospect. The American Journal of Sociology XLV: 3, pp. 446‐451.

Mazlish B. (1963). Psychoanalysis and History. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice‐Hall, pp. 45‐49.

LaCapra, D. (1998) History and Memory After Auschwitz, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Lefebvre, H. (1991). The Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell.

Mases, E. (2001). Estado y cuestión indígena en la Argentina finisecular. La incorporación de los indios sometidos. Índice: Revista de Ciencias Sociales 35:21. pp.189‐207.

Mazlish, B., (1963). Psychoanalysis and History. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice‐Hall.

Noiriel, G. (1992). Difficulties in French historical research on immigration. In Horowitz D. L. & Noiriel, G., Immigrants in Two Democracies: French and American Experience. New York: NYU Press.

Noiriel, G. (1995). Immigration: amnesia and memory. French Historical Studies. 19:2, Fall. pp. 367‐380.

Noiriel, G. (1997). The French Melting Pot: Immigration, Citizenship, and National Identity. Trans. De la Fourcade, G., Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Novaro, G., Borton, A., Diez, M. L., Hecht, C. (2008). Sonidos del silencio, voces silenciadas. Niños indígenas y migrantes en escuelas de Buenos Aires. Revista Mexicana de Investigación Educativa 38. (15). Mexico. pp. 173‐201.

Nora, P. (1996). Realms of Memory. NY: Columbia University Press.

Olick, J. (1999). Collective Memory: The Two cultures. Sociological Theory 17:3. pp. 333‐ 49.

Proyecto: Museo Nacional de la Inmigración (2000). Buenos Aires: Dirección Nacional de Migraciones.

Quijada, M., (1998). “La Question indienne,” Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie, CV. pp. 305‐323.

Ratier, H. (1985). Villeros y villas miseria. Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de América Latina.

Renan, E. (1995). What is a nation? In Dahbour, O. & Ishay, M. ed., The Nationalism Reader, Humanities Press International.

Ricoeur, P. (2006). Mémoire, histoire, oubli. Esprit 3­4. pp. 20‐29.

Ricoeur, P. (1965). History and Truth Trans. C.A. Kelbley, Evanston: Northwestern University Press, Second edition.

Rousso, H. (1991). The Vichy Syndrome. History and Memory in France since 1944. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Salessi, J. (1995). Médicos, maleantes y maricas: higiene, criminología y homosexualidad en Argentina 1870­1914. Buenos Aires: Beatriz Viterbo Editora.

Sarmiento, D. F. (1982). Facundo: Civilización y Barbarie, Colección Literatura Latinoamericana, Havana: Casa de las Américas.

Spiegel, G. (2002). Memory and History: Liturgical Time and Historical Time. History and Theory, 41. pp. 149‐162.

Todorov, T. (1995). Les abus de la mémoire. Paris: Arléa.

Trouillot, M.R. (1995). Silencing the Past: Power and the production of history. Beacon Press.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affaires (2002). International Migration Report. United Nations: New York. p10.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affaires (2006). International Migration Chart 2006 [Graphic chart and data summary of the International Migration Report for 2006] United Nations: New York. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/esa/population/public ations/2006Migration_Chart/Migration200 6.pdf

Viet, V. (2005). Musée et histoire de l’immigration, un enjeu pour toutes les nations. Hommes et Migrations 1255. pp. 72‐78.

Wertsch, J. V., (2002). Voices of Collective Remembering. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wertsch, J. V., and Roediger, H. L. (2008). Creating a new discipline of memory studies. Memory Studies 1:9. pp. 9‐22.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 The New School Psychology Bulletin

© The New School Psychology Bulletin | editors@nspb.net